The diseases we are referring to are the ones we find in domestic pets such as dogs and cats.
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2, colloquially parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs, and thought to originate in cats. The current consensus is that the feline panleukopenia mutated into CPV2. Parvo is highly contagious and is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect contact with their faeces. Vaccines can prevent this infection, but mortality can reach 91% in untreated cases. Treatment often involves veterinary hospitalization. Canine parvovirus may infect other mammals including foxes, and cats; however, it will not infect humans.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects cats worldwide. FIV differs taxonomically from two other feline retroviruses, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline foamy virus (FFV), and is more closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV is the only non-primate lentivirus to cause an AIDS-like syndrome, but FIV is not typically fatal for cats, as they can live relatively healthily as carriers and transmitters of the disease for many years. A vaccine is available although its efficacy remains uncertain. Cats will test positive for FIV antibodies after vaccination.
Canine distemper is a viral disease that affects a wide variety of animal families, including domestic and wild species. It was long believed that animals in the family Felidae, including many species of large cat as well as domestic cats, were resistant to canine distemper, until some researchers reported the prevalence of CDV infection in large felids. It is now known that both large Felidae and domestic cats can be infected, usually through close housing with dogs or possibly blood transfusion from infected cats, but such infections appear to be self-limiting and largely without symptoms.
Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline infectious enteritis, feline parvoviral enteritis, feline distemper, feline ataxia, or cat plague, is a viral infection affecting cats, both domesticated and wild feline species. It is caused by feline parvovirus, a close relative of both type 2 canine parvovirus and mink enteritis. Once contracted, it is highly contagious and can be fatal to the affected cat. The name panleukopenia comes from the low white blood cell count (leucocytes) exhibited by affected animals.
Mange is a class of skin diseases caused by parasitic mites. Since mites also infect plants, birds, and reptiles, the term "mange", suggesting poor condition of the hairy coat due to the infection, is sometimes reserved only for pathological mite-infestation of nonhuman mammals. Thus, mange includes mite-associated skin disease in domestic animals (cats, dogs, rabbits), in livestock (such as sheep scab), and in wild animals (for example, coyotes, cougars, and bears).
Ehrlichia is a genus of rickettsiales bacteria that is transmitted to vertebrates by ticks. These bacteria cause the Ehrlichiosisinfection, which is considered zoonotic, because the main reservoirs for the disease are animals.
Dirofilaria immitis, the heartworm or dog heartworm, is a parasitic roundworm that is spread from host to host through the bites of mosquitoes. The heartworm is a type of filarial worm, a small thread-like worm, that causes filariasis. The definitive host is the dog, but it can also infect cats and foxes, and other animals, such as
ferrets, bears, sea lions and even, under very rare circumstances, humans. The parasite is commonly called "heartworm"; however, adults often reside in the pulmonary arterial system (lung arteries), as well as the heart, and a major effect on the health for the animal is a manifestation of damage to the lung vessels and tissues. Occasionally, adult heartworms migrate to the right heart and even the great veins in heavy infections. Heartworm infection may result in serious disease for the host, with death typically as the result of congestive heart failure.
Ringworm in pets may often be asymptomatic, resulting in a carrier condition which infects other pets. In some cases, the disease only appears when the animal develops an immunodeficiency condition. Circular bare patches on the skin suggest the diagnosis, but no lesion is truly specific to the fungus. Similar patches may result from allergies, sarcoptic mange, and other conditions. Three species of fungi cause 95% of dermatophytosis in pets.
There are many other diseases, but the ones above are the most common diseases in the UAE in domestic pets (source for the above descriptions is Wikipedia).